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铝污染
 



The behavior and control of impurities in dysprosium metal metallurgy are investigated by experiments The impurities in dysprosium metal such as O, Fe and Al are from the raw material dysprosium fluoride, and the Ca, F and W are drawn into dysprosium metal by smelting process The high quality dysprosium metal can be made by control of dysprosium fluoride quality and operation parameters, and avoidance of Fe and Al contamination The recovery of dysprosium is up to 95%, and low contents of Ca, F and W are...

The behavior and control of impurities in dysprosium metal metallurgy are investigated by experiments The impurities in dysprosium metal such as O, Fe and Al are from the raw material dysprosium fluoride, and the Ca, F and W are drawn into dysprosium metal by smelting process The high quality dysprosium metal can be made by control of dysprosium fluoride quality and operation parameters, and avoidance of Fe and Al contamination The recovery of dysprosium is up to 95%, and low contents of Ca, F and W are achieved in the condition of 9%~13% Ca dosage, 1460℃ smelting temperature, and 10~20min retention time

通过试验 ,研究金属镝冶炼过程中杂质的行为及相应的控制方法。金属镝中的氧、铁、铝主要是由原料引入 ,钙、氟、钨是熔炼过程中进入金属镝的。确保氟化镝原料质量 ,避免铁、铝污染 ,控制合适的工艺条件可以获得高质量的金属镝。在金属钙用量为 9%~ 13 % ,熔炼温度为 14 60℃左右 ,熔炼时间 10~ 2 0min的条件下 ,金属镝的回收率可达 95 %以上 ,进入粗金属镝中的杂质钙、氟、钨可控制在较低水平

The study deals with the effect of aluminum (Al) stress on the microflora of red soil in soybean pot culture experiment. The red soil in soybean pot culture experiment exhibited an increase in bacteria and actinomycetes when Al mass fraction was lower than 1.1 g/kg and a decrease when Al mass fraction was higher than 1.1 g/kg. Al had a significant and stimulative effect on soil fungi. Al had a similar effect on ammoniation bacteria, nitrifier and denitribacteria to bacteria and actinomycetes. The maximum ratio...

The study deals with the effect of aluminum (Al) stress on the microflora of red soil in soybean pot culture experiment. The red soil in soybean pot culture experiment exhibited an increase in bacteria and actinomycetes when Al mass fraction was lower than 1.1 g/kg and a decrease when Al mass fraction was higher than 1.1 g/kg. Al had a significant and stimulative effect on soil fungi. Al had a similar effect on ammoniation bacteria, nitrifier and denitribacteria to bacteria and actinomycetes. The maximum ratio of Al inhibiting ammoniation bacteria, nitrifier and denitribacteria reached 48%, 96% and 95%, respectively. The number of azotobacteria was gradually reduced with increasing concentration of Al. Nitrifier or denitribacteria could be used as indicator bacteria for Al-polluted soil, and the critical mass fraction of Al was about 1.3 g/kg.

通过大豆盆栽试验,研究了金属铝对土壤微生物区系组成的影响。结果表明,当铝质量分数<1.1 g/kg时,土壤细菌、放线菌的数量随着铝质量分数的增加而增加;当铝质量分数>1.1 g/kg时,土壤细菌、放线菌的数量随着铝质量分数的增加而减少。铝对丝状真菌的生长具有明显的促进作用。在低质量分数下,铝对土壤氨化细菌、硝化细菌、反硝化细菌具有一定的刺激作用;当质量分数>1.1 g/kg时,则表现为抑制作用,最大抑制率分别达48%、96%和95%;土壤硝化细菌、反硝化细菌可以作为铝污染土壤生态环境的指示菌。自生固氮菌的数量随铝质量分数的升高而逐渐下降。铝对土壤微生物区系产生抑制作用的临界质量分数在1.3 g/kg左右。

The article expondes systemically some problems such as the distributing of aluminum in the body of human, effects of aluminum on human health, the mechanism of aluminum toxicity, the sources of aluminum pollution. The existence of excessive aluminum in the body and the transformation of its conformation affect human’s absorption in some abio-elements and organic elements, and this causes many diseases and physiological functional disorders. Al~3+ restains the activeness of ATPase, super-oxide dismutase (SOD),...

The article expondes systemically some problems such as the distributing of aluminum in the body of human, effects of aluminum on human health, the mechanism of aluminum toxicity, the sources of aluminum pollution. The existence of excessive aluminum in the body and the transformation of its conformation affect human’s absorption in some abio-elements and organic elements, and this causes many diseases and physiological functional disorders. Al~3+ restains the activeness of ATPase, super-oxide dismutase (SOD), the red cell membrane of calcium albumen Ca~2+ -Mg~2+ -ATPase, etc. And it has strong affinity with DNA in nerve fibril entwists. All this is the chief mechanism of aluminum toxicity. The article brings forward the measures to prevent the aluminum pollution in two aspects: environment and daily life.

对铝在人体内的分布、铝对人体健康的影响、铝的致毒机理、铝的污染来源、铝污染的防治措施等问题进行了较系统地阐述.人体内铝的过量存在及形态转化会影响人体对某些无机元素和有机元素的吸收,引发多种疾病和生理功能障碍.Al3+对ATPase、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、钙调蛋白活化的红细胞膜Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase的活性均有抑制作用,并在神经原微纤维缠结内与DNA有较强的亲和力,是铝中毒的重要机制.从生态环境和人的日常生活两方面提出了防治措施.

The study dealt with the effect of aluminum(Al) stress on the microflora of rhizosphere soil by soybean pot culture experiment.The rhizosphere soil in the soybean pot culture experiment exhibited an increasing of bacteria and actinomycetes at low Al concentration and decreasing at high Al concentration.Al had significant stimulative effect on soil fungi.Al was significantly poisonous to soil nitrifier,dinitrifier and azotobacter at high concentration,and the maximum inhibition ratio reached 96%,98% and 89%,respectively.Nitrifier...

The study dealt with the effect of aluminum(Al) stress on the microflora of rhizosphere soil by soybean pot culture experiment.The rhizosphere soil in the soybean pot culture experiment exhibited an increasing of bacteria and actinomycetes at low Al concentration and decreasing at high Al concentration.Al had significant stimulative effect on soil fungi.Al was significantly poisonous to soil nitrifier,dinitrifier and azotobacter at high concentration,and the maximum inhibition ratio reached 96%,98% and 89%,respectively.Nitrifier or denitrifier could be used as indicator bacteria of Al-polluted soil.The difference of effect of aluminium stress on rhizosphere microorganism between the two soybean varieties indicated that the biological effect of Al was related to plant growth and rhizospheric effect.

通过盆栽试验研究了不同浓度外源铝对大豆根际土壤微生物区系的影响。结果表明:在低浓度下,铝对土壤细菌、放线菌具有刺激作用,在高浓度下,表现为抑制作用。铝对真菌的生长具有明显的刺激作用。在高浓度下,铝对土壤硝化细菌、反硝化细菌、自生固氮菌均产生强烈的抑制作用,最大抑制率分别为96%、98%和89%。土壤硝化细菌、反硝化细菌可以作为铝污染土壤生态环境的指示菌。铝对两个大豆品种根际土壤微生物区系组成的影响不一致,揭示铝胁迫的生物效应还与植物生长、植物根际效应有关。

The aluminum in the foods was investigated in Shanghai.The ninety-four samples in four groups of foods were analyzed according to GB/T 5009.182-2003.The results showed that according to GB 15202-1994,the biscuit up to standard rate was 100%,the cake up to standard rate was 85.5%,the steam bun up to standard rate was 81.8% and the oil-strip up to standard rate was only 53.5%.Some proposals and measures for the aluminum pollution control.

为了解上海市食品中铝污染情况,采集四个品种94件样品用国标法GB/T 5009.182-2003进行了铝含量的分析。结果表明,按照国标GB 15202-1994判断,饼干合格率达100%,糕点合格率85.7%,馒头合格率81.5%,油条合格率仅53.5%。提出了控制铝污染对策和建议。

Aluminum pollution in soil not only affects growth and yield of crop plants, but also develops a potential risk to food health. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study Al and mineral nutrient absorption and accumulation of tea (Camellia sinensis) seedlings under 5 Al levels ranged from 0 to 20 mg·L-1. The results indicated that the contents of aluminum in root, stem increased with the increasing concentrations of aluminum in culture solution. The order of the Al content in different organs of tea...

Aluminum pollution in soil not only affects growth and yield of crop plants, but also develops a potential risk to food health. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study Al and mineral nutrient absorption and accumulation of tea (Camellia sinensis) seedlings under 5 Al levels ranged from 0 to 20 mg·L-1. The results indicated that the contents of aluminum in root, stem increased with the increasing concentrations of aluminum in culture solution. The order of the Al content in different organs of tea seedlings was root>leaf >stem treated with aluminum. According to the whole plant, the accumulation amount of aluminum in roots increased with the additions of aluminum, while the accumulation amount in the shoot and leaf relatively decreased. The absorption of tea seedlings to nutrient elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium wasn’t significantly disturbed treated with aluminum, while the absorption to phosphorus was enhanced, to some extent, it reflected the endurance of tea plant to aluminum.

土壤铝污染不仅影响作物的生长发育和产量,也对食品安全产生了潜在威胁。利用水培方法,设置0、5、10、15、20mg·L-15种铝处理水平,研究不同铝质量浓度水平下茶苗对铝及矿质养分的吸收与累积。结果表明:茶苗根、茎中铝含量均随着铝处理的质量浓度的增加而明显增加,而叶中含量影响不大。不同铝水平下各部位铝含量大小依次为根>叶>茎。从整株植物来看,随着铝处理质量浓度的增加,铝在根部的积累量增加,在茎和叶的积累量趋于下降。铝对茶苗营养元素钙、钾、镁的吸收影响不大,对磷的吸收有所促进,在一定程度上体现出茶树植物对铝的耐性。

The products are sampled from three exit quick-frozen food manufactories in nanhai district foshan city,and detected contents of aluminium by ICP.The results are scored sanitarily according to GB2762-2005.We have tested 67 samples of four quick-frozen floured food,and the results as:the total checking out rate of aluminium contents is 76.1%;the checking out rate of dumpling of appending non-aluminium swelling agent is 100%;other three quick-frozen floured food are appended swelling agent of containing aluminium,and...

The products are sampled from three exit quick-frozen food manufactories in nanhai district foshan city,and detected contents of aluminium by ICP.The results are scored sanitarily according to GB2762-2005.We have tested 67 samples of four quick-frozen floured food,and the results as:the total checking out rate of aluminium contents is 76.1%;the checking out rate of dumpling of appending non-aluminium swelling agent is 100%;other three quick-frozen floured food are appended swelling agent of containing aluminium,and we have detected some underproof products in each,the maximum of the results is 766mg/kg.We have realized the aluminium contaminating state of exit quick-frozen floured food in nanhai district foshan city,we can develop the of supervising and inspecting with the intention in future;and we have suggested the way of controlling the aluminium contamination in food.

对佛山市南海区内三家出口速冻方便食品生产企业生产的速冻面制品抽样送检,用ICP法检测铝含量。卫生学评价按食品中污染物限量国家标准(GB2762-2005)进行。抽检四类速冻面制品共67件,铝含量合格率为76.1%,其中,未加入含铝膨松剂的饺子合格率为100%;有加入含铝膨松剂的包点、馒头、花卷均检出不合格品,最大超标值达766 mg/kg。对佛山市南海区出口速冻面制品中铝污染状况有了初步了解,为今后有目的地进行监督监测工作提供依据;并提出了控制食品中铝污染的对策与建议。

 
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